This is a systematic introduction to 360° video and photography production methods for journalism (mostly news coverage): Overview and theoretical considerations by Kai Rüsberg for scientific and educational use as a topic collection. tbc
Fundamentals for 360° video and photo
- What is 360°, what is VR, what is Augmented Reality?
- How are media produced for virtual realities? Which formats do exist?
- How can virtual media be presented? Which internet platforms, software and hardware are there for presenting?
- Marketplaces and distribution channels for virtual stories and software on the internet.
- Who are the users? What are their needs or interests?
Journalism with all perspectives
- Journalism in virtual reality: Which report forms? Where is the journalism in 360°?
- Which subjects are suited. Which are unacceptable?
- The role of the journalist: Should the reporter appear in the picture of 360° reports? Or shoot, run and hide – be hidden on the recording?
- Does it generally need explanations if the spectator can look around by himself?
Production of 360° media
- Which hardware for the production of 360°: Market overview of typical cameras incl. assessment.
- The resolutions and picture variations: QHD, 4K, 8K, full dome or 180/360?
- Settings in the camera and practise with admissions with 360° cameras.
- Before the trick: Installation, tripods, nadir, movement of the camera.
- Ideal conditions for the installation in the space, audio admission and exposure.
Directing a 360° production
- Is the director or author in the picture and can directly intervene?
- If director is out of sight of the camera, how can he direct?
- Usage of wireless communication and picture monitoring of the 360-device.
- Installation of additional monitoring and communication systems.
- Need a storyboard for 360 news production?
Language of VR*
- Close-ups, pans or zooms focus the viewer’s attention
- Proximity as a factor: What is closer to the camera seems to be more important
- Centering is directing the viewer’s attention.
- First shot of a VR film is the most important.
- First shot is the only time you have complete control over where the viewer will look first.
Audio in all dimensions
- The good tone: How is the audio captured? Where do I hide the microphones? Direct input or synchronisation in post processing?
- Multichannel audio, Ambisonics, 3D-audio and Spatial audio: The high school of the locatable audio admission.
- Which technology is available for multichannel-audio admission?
- The sound, which comes from all sides, caught spherically: How do I make it right? Where do I place the microphones? What must I follow for post-processing?
- Which software and plug-ins to integrate my 3D-audio into the film project?
Lighting and external devices
- How to use natural and artificial light?
- Where to place artifical light? May the lights be visible?
- Unvisible artifical lights: Monopod-mounted systems.
- Using mono-/tripod oder gimbals for 360 cameras: market overview.
With both eyes: stereoscopic
- The entrance in real virtual reality: producing stereoscopic 360° videos and photos.
- Do-it-yourself construction or ready made models: What does the market offer with stereoscopy?
- Workflow with the post-processing: Which tools and software?
Treatment of the media
- Stitching: what does it mean and how do I make this? Which software?
- Cutting and storytelling in the timeline: Which software is available?
Possibilities of the post-processing and picture improvement with software and plug-ins.
- The possibilities of insertions: Title, 2D video and text boards. What and how much makes sense?
- Correction and editing of stiching lines
- Cloning out tripods and other objects
Legal and ethics
- Who needs to be informed and how that 360 filming is in place?
Does the filming infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties (copyright, right of depiction, private life or harm the image of persons who may be identified within the content)
- What about children or other immature and the right of their their own likeness. Do you need a written consent of their caretakers? Are they in prominent position or in the background?
- Does the filming take place in a gated/closed-off area?
- Are you humiliating people in private surrounding or filming children (partly) nacked? (Maybe in a private room or Kindergarden, which could result in a criminal offence in Germany)
- Are you able to monitor the whole scene, esp. if streamed live?
- Inserting greenscreened shots into another picture or stiching of separatly shot parts of the sphere: is it cheating the viewer?
In addition… (to be defined later on)
- On-line platforms for the treatment and help / know how, education.
- Use of the material in other media like 2D video, fish-eye or little planet photography.
- Live transmission in 360°
- Continous exposure series of photos instead of video for resolution enhancements
Anything to criticise?
Anything to add?
Please put it in the comments below!
*= “Language of VR” after Dane Christensen in Medium “What I learned making a 360° video…”